Cardiac surgery has been an independent medical specialty since 1993. It has developed from general surgery, focusing on thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. It deals with the surgical treatment of congenital and acquired diseases and injuries of the heart and the vessels near the heart.
A narrowing of the carotid artery (usually the internal carotid artery, ACI) carries a stroke risk. The risk of suffering a stroke due to carotid artery disease is >10% per year for higher grade stenoses. The majority of carotid stenoses are asymptomatic. Symptomatic stenosis of the internal carotid artery manifests itself as a transitory ischaemic attack (TIA, passerine paralysis, speech disorders, etc.), as amaurosis fugax (passerine blindness), or as a manifest ischaemic stroke. The classic surgical procedure is the carotid thrombendarterectomy, removing the stenosing plaques and reconstructing the vessel wall. The process is low-risk and offers excellent long-term results.